In search of AI literacy in Teacher Education: A Scoping review

11:00-13:00 – NI:A0507

In search of AI literacy in Teacher Education: A Scoping review

13. ICT & Education 
Katarina Sperling1 , Carl-Johan Stenberg1, Cormac McGrath2, Anna Åkerfeldt3, Fredrik Heintz4, Linnea Stenliden1 
1 Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden
2 Department of Education, Stockholm University, Sweden
3 Department of Teaching and Learning, Stockholm University, Sweden
4 Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden

Recent developments in educational AI, combined with the increased presence of AI in society, have highlighted the need for K-12 teachers and teacher educators to promote AI literacy (Holmes, 2022). This study aims to examine how the scientific literature conceptualises AI literacy in relation to teachers’ different forms of professional knowledge relevant to Teacher Education (TE).  A literature review was conducted targeting studies relating to AI literacy between 2000-2023. 534 records from five databases were initially screened, with 34 being included in the final analysis. The included articles were analysed using the Aristotelian concepts of epistêmê (theoretical-scientific knowledge), technê (practical-productive knowledge), and phronêsis (political-ethical knowledge or practical wisdom) as discussed in contemporary writing by e.g., Gustavsson (2000). This analytical construct was deployed to better understand the different professional knowledge implied in the AI literacy concept. The Aristotelian dimensions of knowledge further relate to other competence and qualification frameworks in the EU and elsewhere ​(Barstad, 2013)​.

Results indicate that AI literacy is an emerging research topic, and the concept is still being actively moulded by different theoretical and methodological approaches. Computer science and constructionist theories have influenced what types of knowledge are desirable and AI is often seen as an inevitable force in the future of education. Some studies highlight knowledge of the theoretical foundations of AI, such as the difference between AI and machine learning or certain data structures (episteme), while others employ implicit understandings of AI literacy (e.g., by constructing questionnaires against which AI literacy is benchmarked). Teachers’ practical knowledge (techne) emerges as the ability to efficiently use different hands-on educational resources in teaching with and about AI, or how to best design AI curricula and professional development programmes. What constitutes teachers’ professional judgement and practical wisdom (phronesis) is the dimension least explored in the literature. This form of knowledge entails an ethical and reflexive mindset, enabling teachers to discern when and how to best utilize AI.

Our study highlights the need to further explore, in Nordic educational contexts and beyond, what theoretical, practical and ethical knowledge teachers and teacher educators need. With the literature review as a starting point, the research team aims to conduct a Delphi study to explore the concept of AI literacy further. 


Barstad, K. (2013). Qualification Frameworks and the Concept of Knowledge. From Aristotle to Bologna, Brussels. In A.-L. Østern, K. Smith, T. Ryghaug, T. Krüger, & M. B. Postholm, NAFOL Yearbook 2012 – Teacher Education Research between National Identity and Global Trends (ss. 185-214). Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.

Gustavsson, B. (2000). Kunskapsfilosofi: Tre kunskapsformer i historisk belysning. Wahlström & Widstrand.

Holmes, W., Persson, J., Chounta, I.-A., Wasson, B., & Dimitrova, V. (2022). Artificial intelligence and education: A critical view through the lens of human rights, democracy and the rule of law. Council of Europe. 



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